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Cytotoxic Effects of Betel Vine, Piper betle Linn. Leaf Extracts Using Artemia salina Leach (Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay)

Magdalene Mae L. Del Socorro, Clifford P. Bendoy, Charity May L. Dacayana

Evaluation of cytotoxic effects of plants is as essential as their phytochemical appraisal in medicinal botany and drug discovery. In this study, the cytotoxic activity of the methanol, ethanol, and crude aqueous extracts of the plant Betel Vine Piper betle Linn. under the family Piperaceae was evaluated using the brine shrimp lethality (BSL) assay. Cytotoxic activity of P. betle was assessed based on lethality concentration. Brine shrimp eggs were hatched, and 10 resulting nauplii were added to the diluted test solutions at varying concentrations - 5 μg/mL, 50 μg/mL, and 500 μg/mL. Surviving Artemia salina Leach shrimp nauplii were counted after 24 hours and lethality concentration was determined. Maximum mortality of the brine shrimp was observed at the highest treated-concentration whereas least mortality at the lowest treated-concentration. Ethanol and methanol crude extracts showed significant cytotoxic activity with LC50 values of 23.65 μg/mL and 85.50 μg/mL, respectively, which indicated the presence of potent cytotoxic components of the plant. Hence, P. betle is found to be containing cytotoxic compounds but this result does not necessarily suggest complete toxicity of the plant because it may also suggest potential antitumor or anticancer activities.

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